Chapter 1, Wireless Lab Setup: There are dozens of exercises we will be doing in this book. In order to be able to try them out, the reader will need to setup a wireless lab. This chapter focuses on how to create a wireless testing lab using off-the-shelf hardware and open source software. We will first look at hardware requirements, which include wireless cards, antennas, access points and other Wi-Fi enabled devices, then we will shift our focus to the software requirements which include the operating system, Wi-Fi drivers and security tools. Finally, we will create a test bed for our experiments and verify different wireless configurations on it.
Chapter 2, WLAN and its Inherent Insecurities: This chapter focuses on inherent design flaws in wireless networks, that make insecure out-of-the-box. We will begin with a quick recap of the 802.11 WLAN protocols using a network analyzer called Wireshark. This will give us a practical understanding about how these protocols work. Most importantly, we will see how client and access point communication works at the packer level by analyzing Management, Control and Data frames. We will then learn about packet injection and packer sniffing in wireless networks, and look at some tools which enable us to do the same.
Chapter 3, Bypassing WLAN Authentication: Now we get into how to break WLAN authentication mechanism! We will go step by step and explore how to subvert Open and Shared Key authentications. In the course of this, you will learn how to analyse wireless packets and figure out the authentication mechanism of the network. We will also look at how to break into networks with Hidden SSID and MAC Filtering enabled. These are two common mechanisms employed by network administrators to make wireless networks more stealthy and difficult to penetrate; however, these are extremely simple to bypass.
Chapter 4, WLAN Encryption Flaws: One of the most vulnerable parts of the WLAN protocol is the Encryption schemas – WEP, WPA and WPA2. Over the past decade hackers have found multiple flaws in these schemas and have written publically available software to break them and decrypt the data. Also, even though WPA/WPA2 is secure by design, misconfiguring those opens up security vulnerabilities, that can be easily exploited. In this chapter, we will understand the insecurities in each of these encryption schemas and do practical demos on how to break them.
Chapter 5, Attacks on the WLAN Infrastructure: We will now shift our focus to WLAN Infrastructure vulnerabilities. We will look at vulnerabilities created due to both configuration and design problem. We will do practical demos of attacks such as access point MAC spoofing, bit flipping and replay attacks, rogue access points, fuzzing and denial of services. This chapter will give the reader a solid understanding of how to do a penetration test of the WLAN infrastructure.
Chapter 6, Attacking the Client: This chapter might open your eyes if you always believed that wireless client security was something you did not have to worry about! Most people exclude the client from their list when they think about WLAN security. This chapter will prove beyond doubt why the client is just as important as the access point when penetration testing a WLAN network. We will look at how to compromise the security using client side attacks such as Miss-Association, Caffe Latte, disassociation, ad-hoc connections, fuzzing, honeypots and a host of others.
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Chapter 7, Advanced WLAN Attacks: Now that we have already covered most of the basic attacks on both the infrastructure and the client, we will look at more advanced attacks in this chapter. These attacks typically involve using multiple basic attacks in conjunction to break security in more challenging scenarios. Some of the attacks which we will learn include wireless device fingerprinting, man-in-the-middle over wireless, evading wireless intrusion detection and prevention systems, rogue access points operating using custom protocol and a couple of others. This chapter presents the absolute bleeding edge in wireless attacks out in the real world.
Chapter 8, Attacking WPA-Enterprise and RADIUS: This chapter graduates the user to the next level by introducing him to advanced attacks on WPA-Enterprise and the RADIUS server setup. These attacks will come in handy when the reader has to penetration test large enterprise networks which rely on WPA-Enterprise and RADIUS authentication to provide them with security. This is probably as advanced as Wi-Fi attacks can get in the real world.
Chapter 9, WLAN Penetrating Testing Methodology: This is where all the learning from the previous chapters comes together, and we will look at how to do a wireless penetration test in a systematic and methodical way. We will learn about the various phases of penetration testing—Planning, Discovery, Attack and Reporting, and apply it to wireless penetration testing. We will also understand how to propose recommendations and best practices after a wireless penetration test.
Chapter 10, WPS and Probes: This chapter covers the two new attacks in the industry that have developed since the initial publication of this book—WPS brute-force and probe sniffing for monitoring.